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February 2020

1 - Charles - The Republic of Texas - Texas became a bone of contention between America and Mexico after the creation of the First Mexican Empire. Local born Tejanos and American Texians lived, worked, and fought together to build a prosperous borderland between the two nations powerful enough to drive off Indian raids. America had accepted it as a Spanish colony, but Mexico claimed it. And the Mexican authorities did not trust the local independence movements that still raged. They finally banned further immigration from America, took away the tax breaks from Texian colonists, and confiscated weapons that the locals were using to protect themselves from Indian raids. The Tejanos and Texians were extremely unhappy with their remote rulers in Mexico when General Santa Anna led a revolt to overthrow the Mexican regime in 1832. Texas followed his example, expelled the Mexican authorities, and demanded redress and concessions from the government. The Mexican government agreed to their demands and the citizens of Texas went back to their lives.

2 - Charles - The Republic of Texas - General Santa Anna soon overthrew the old constitution and dismantled the Republican-style government that had grown up in the previous decade. He wanted central rule, and was perfectly willing to execute anyone who stood up to him. As he proved when his army pillaged the rebellious city of Zacatecas in 1835 and killed thousands of civilians. The Tejanos and Texians rebelled, once again, and Santa Anna marched north to deal with them. His army executed hundreds of Texians they found fighting for the rebellion in famous places like Goliad and the Alamo, though the Tejanos were spared that final punishment. Santa Anna was finally defeated and captured at San Jacinto, whereupon he offered to sign a pair of treaties in exchange for his life and freedom. They promised the Mexican armies would leave and accepted Texas independence and sovereignty over all lands north of the Rio Grande. He was then released to go home and the Republic of Texas breathed a collective sigh of relief and celebration that their long-sought freedom was finally at hand. Then the Mexican government renounced the treaties by saying Santa Anna signed them under duress and pledged to retake the rebellious region.

3 - Medron Pryde - Picard - I’ve watched the first episode of Picard and enjoyed it. It is streaming for free right now on youtube and is well worth the time to watch it if you are Star Trek fan. That is my really tiny review.

The slightly longer one is to describe it briefly. It takes place two decades after Star Trek The Next Generation and the Movies that followed it. Picard has retired, gotten himself a dog, and grows himself some wine. And he dreams about playing poker with Data. On the fourteenth anniversary of the terrorist attack that sets the founding stage of the new series, Picard agrees to do an interview about it. It does not go as he planned, and he does something he has not done in over a decade. He let’s the captain everybody remembers out and says what he really thinks about it, and that kicks the story into action. He gets a visitor who needs help, and being the man he is, he helps her.

I would actually describe this as more of a prequel than a proper first episode of a new series. We see Picard, and we see two or maybe four other people who will be main actors in the series. But we don’t see the ship. We don’t see the crew. We don’t see the team working together or coming together to do the mission that the series will be about. We don’t even really see the beginning of that mission. It’s a prequel that gives us the building blocks of the universe, two decades after the last of the movies we’ve seen. It shows us something Star Trek has rarely ever shown us. How life on Earth goes on. And if I recognize the hints accurately, it gives us a view into what life is like for the Romulans over a decade after their sun exploded in a supernova that fundamentally changed the balance of power in the Alpha Quadrant.

This is not a bad episode. It is actually a very good episode. I simply don’t have a clue what the rest of the cast will be like because we did not see them. I don’t know what the series will be. But if the rest of the series matches this episode in quality, it will be an amazing series to watch.

4 - Charles - The Republic of Texas - The Mexican government renounced the treaties Santa Anna signed to end the Texas Revolution and promised to retake the rebellious region. But there were so many other, more important to them, regions rebelling from the central government, that the army was far too busy to make good their promise. And who in the central government truly cared about the far frontier out beyond the Rio Grande? It was a wild land of bloodthirsty Indians, restive Tejanos, and crazy Texians, none of which anybody liked. To the Spaniards who had slowly brought civilization to both sides of the Rio Grande, they had grown up in the Province of Nuevo Santander, now known as the Free and Sovereign State of Tamaulipas by the Mexican Republic. They were separated from the old Province of Tejas by a wide desert and the Nueces River, the long recognized provincial border under both the Spanish and Mexican governments. The settlements on either side of the Rio Grande had little to do other than trade with that distant province, and certainly did not consider themselves part of Texas, no matter what the Texans said.

5 - Charles - The Republic of Texas - The newborn Republic of Texas spent a decade fortifying and preparing for the day when Mexico would come for them. One thing they had learned during the rebellion was just how potent Mexican cavalry was. The Texians had been completely outclassed in mobile warfare when the Mexicans used their cavalry right. So the new nation placed a major focus on replicating that superior cavalry force. They also reinforced the Texas Rangers with hundreds of new recruits to better defend their people from Indian raids. Within a decade, the Texas armed forces that had barely scraped out a victory against superior Mexican numbers were a much hardier and well-trained force than they had been. And their cavalry was widely regarded as extremely competent. The Texans still did not want to fight Mexico alone, but they were competent enough to defend their borders against anything short of a full war. If only they could keep that from happening diplomatically.

6 - Charles - The Republic of Texas - The new Republic of Texas had an interesting relationship with both Mexico and America. America recognized Texas independence, and Texas happily welcomed further immigration from America. But neither major political party in America wanted to annex Texas. Mexico refused to accept Texas independence, and promised to drag them back whenever they found the time to do it from all their other distractions. Texas therefore did what was best for Texas, and tried to negotiate terms for peaceful annexation into both nations, at the same time. The Mexicans neither rejected nor accepted the deal, but President Tyler of the United States sought to win a second term and thought annexing Texas could provide him that win. He failed to win the next election, but did succeed in getting the annexation passed by Congress. At which point, Mexico finally agreed to accept Texas independence as long as they did not join America. Texas, with their typical respect for the demands of others, smiled, gave Mexico the proverbial middle finger, and voted to join America in 1846.

7 - Charles - The Republic of Texas - Mexico and America found themselves in a standoff after the Texas Annexation. Texas had a signed treaty that recognized their borders out to the Rio Grande River. Mexico declared that treaty null and void due to Santa Anna being a captive at the time he signed it. Furthermore, even if this self-proclaimed Texas was independent, which it was not, the Nueces River was the border of the rebellious Province of Tejas, not the Rio Grande. America sent a diplomatic mission to Mexico seeking to deal with the mutual misunderstanding of the where the border was the old fashioned way. Money. America would buy the disputed territory at what it considered a fair market value. The Mexicans sent the diplomatic mission away with a message to stay out of Mexican lands or risk war. America, with their typical respect for the demands of others, gave Mexico the proverbial middle finger, and promptly went down to the mouth of the Rio Grande to build a border fort on the Texas side of the river.

8 - Charles - The Republic of Texas - Mexico did not take kindly to American troops crossing the Nueces River and building a fort on the Rio Grande. They quickly sent troops across the Rio Grande to drive the Americans away. They attacked and defeated numerous American patrols, and America declared war soon thereafter. Numerous Texas forces volunteered to join the war effort, including many of their respected cavalry units and the Rangers. The far better equipped American Army quickly smashed through the poorly equipped Mexican Army and occupied New Mexico and California. They marched south of the Rio Grande with Texas Cavalry and Ranger patrols running interference around them to conquer numerous major Mexican cities. Initial attacks were repulsed by dug in defenders, but the Texas Rangers showed their American brothers how to dig holes through the adobe walls and fight the Mexicans in close quarters. America performed its first major amphibious landing in Veracruz, and then marched on Mexico City where the United States Marines earned “The Halls of Montezuma” line in their anthem. In the end, America held Mexico’s capital, their northern frontier, and many of their richest cities in an iron grip. And the Texas Rangers earned the name “Los Diablos Tejanos.” The Texan Devils.

9 - Charles - The Republic of Texas - Once the American military had secured the Mexican capital, a diplomatic mission was sent to deal with the mutual misunderstanding of where the border was. Texas, all the way to the Rio Grande. And now that they had been forced to go through all this fighting and occupation, America was going to keep New Mexico and California. America was happy to buy all that territory at a fair price, and Mexico would be happy to sell them at a fair price. It turned out that Mexico was not necessarily happy to sell a third of their territory at half the price per acre the Americans had offered before the war, but they were willing to, in exchange for a treaty of peace and an end to the occupation. At which point, the Americans turned around, marched back north of the Rio Grande, and happily washed their hands of Mexican lands for the next two centuries. Mexico, not nearly so happy about the whole ordeal, spent the next two centuries dreaming of the day they could get their conquered and rebellious regions back.

10 - Medron - Crazy - The big story this week is the acquittal of President Trump in the Senate of the Impeachment charges sent by the House. Well, that is one of the big stories. There was also the State of the Union address. And that happened after the new NAFTA was signed and that whole Israeli Peace Proposal thing. Oh, and some people who worked in the White House were reassigned to other duties after testifying to the House Impeachment committees. The Kansas City Chiefs won the superbowl for the first time in fifty years, and people across the world found out that there is a Kansas City in Missouri, in addition to the far more famous Kansas City, Kansas. And some Hollywood types gave out some awards about movies or something last night. Other than that, it’s actually been a fairly quiet week outside the Impeachment drama.

Nah. Who am I kidding? It’s been a screaming loud week. From watching the party that wants to run all of our healthcare choices totally fail at counting votes to watching Pelosi shake her head at controversial statements like all people being equal. And then there is watching Democrat ladies stand up in the middle of the State of the Union to shout at the President after he called for a bipartisan bill to reduce drug prescription prices. And of course there is Handshake Gate and Speechripper Gate. I remember when a single congressman shouted “You lie” at the President and it was front page news. Bipartisan criticism hit him and his own party rescinded his committee assignment if I remember correctly. The lack of outrage now is palpable.

It’s been an interesting week, and I can’t help but look at the coming week and think that maybe I should buckle up. Because baby, if rhetoric is anything to go by, the crazies don’t plan on getting any less crazy this week…

11 - Charles - The Republic of Texas - Texas achieved independence long after the First Republican Party rose and fell in the 1790s and 1820s. And the Second Republican Party, commonly known as the National Republicans, fell in 1834, shortly before Texas gained its independence. So when Texas joined the Union in the 1840s, and incorporated themselves into America’s larger economy and political structure throughout the 1850s, there was no major Republican Party. Texas was officially a Slave State, with most of their slaves in the oldest colonies of Central and North Eastern Texas. With that rich power base to operate from, the Pro-Slavery Democrats held impressive political power in Texas. Therefore it was the Third Republican Party, founded in 1854, that was a threat to the established Texas power structure of the time. The Republicans promoted stopping the expansion of Slavery into the American Territories, and held the less public mission of helping slaves escape from Slave States. So when the Republicans surprised everyone by winning both Houses of Congress and the Presidency in 1860, the Democrats in control of Texas did not react well.

12 - Charles - The Republic of Texas - Texas joined a United States of America in the middle of a time of great division. It was in fact that division that had made Texas Annexation a controversy. Northern Free States did not want Texas to join the Union because they did not want to add another Southern Slave State. They feared it would give more power to the Slave States, and they felt their fears realized with the passage of the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850. It sentenced those who helped accused escaped slaves with six months in prison, officials who didn’t arrest them with fines of one thousand dollars, and deprived the accused escaped slave of the right to demand a jury trial or testify in their own defense. The Slave States considered it a simple protection of their property rights. Free States felt like they were being forced to participate in slavery and some outright nullified the law. Many Abolitionists publicly proclaimed their violations of the law and dared officials to arrest them, and juries across the North refused to convict those charged with violating it. The South did not take kindly to this blatant rejection of their rights, and Texas found itself caught in the middle of the growing crisis.

13 - Charles - The Republic of Texas - A little known fact of the American election of 1860 that catapulted the Third Republican Party into majorities in both Houses of Congress, and the Presidency, is that it was done with a minority of the vote. The Democrats had a massive majority, but were divided between three competing factions that year. They split the election between them, allowing the man history would call Honest Abe to slip through with an electoral majority. The Democrats were shocked and horrified at having lost, when nobody thought the man they’d called an idiot and worse had any chance of winning. They declared they would never submit to such a man in the Presidency. They called for resistance against him, for driving his supporters out of society, and for outright rebellion against his rule. And seven States, including Texas, officially seceded from the Union a month before Abraham Lincoln was sworn in as President of the United States of America.

14 - Charles - The Republic of Texas - Sam Houston wore many hats in his lifetime. He was a Representative and Governor of Tennessee, and leader of the Texian army that defeated Santa Anna. He was the first and third President of the Republic of Texas, and served as Senator and Governor of the State of Texas. There were few politicians in all of Texas who had as much respect and prestige as Sam Houston, but the Democrat Party had spent over a decade establishing themselves as the dominant force in Texas politics. Houston urged their Secession Convention to reject secession due to the horrors of war and the probability that The South would lose any conflict with the Union. But even his prestige had limits, the convention voted to secede, and just over ten percent of the State’s free population voted to ratify it. Under four percent voted against it. Houston then urged Texas to return to its status as a Republic and to remain neutral between North and South. But the Secession Convention further voted to join the Confederacy, and when called to take an oath of allegiance to the Confederacy he remained seated and silent. They removed Sam Houston from office for that refusal, and he died two years later, a reluctant citizen of a Confederacy at war with the Union he had grown up in.

15 - Charles - The Republic of Texas - The Southern Democrats reacted badly to the Abolitionist Republicans winning the federal election of 1860. They saw the incoming government as at war with their entire lifestyle, and though Lincoln promised not to start a war or infringe on their States’ rights, they struck out at the incoming administration and any who supported it with every weapon at their disposal. They took possession of federal forts and weapons caches throughout The South, and raised an army of their own to stand against any potential Union attack. Texas passed a law to conscript all able-bodied men, unless they owned fifteen or more slaves, into the military, and began hunting down those who refused to sign up. Thousands of Texans, including some entire colonies, traveled north or south across the borders into Union or Mexican lands to flee the forced conscriptions, and army units were sent to hunt them down. They were treated as deserters and sometimes shot on the spot. Others received a hearing in court before their hanging. It was a bad time to be someone who did not toe the party line and do as they were told.

16 - Charles - The Republic of Texas - The State of Texas counted just over four hundred thousand free citizens when Abraham Lincoln was elected President of the United States. Just over forty thousand of them voted in favor of secession. Over seventy thousand, some estimates say as many as ninety thousand, Texans took arms in defense of their State and the Confederacy. And over two thousand took up arms for the Union. That is as many as twenty percent of their free population, effectively an entire generation of their young men. They raised over forty-five regiments of capable Texas cavalry troops to form the backbone of the Confederacy’s screening and harassing forces, along with heavy infantry and artillery support, and five more cavalry regiments on the Union side. Texans fought in every major battle of the Civil War, often on both sides, and it is impossible to underestimate how much the army they sent east changed the nature of the war. The South certainly would have fallen far sooner than it did.

17 - Medron - Fallout Shelter Arcade - I spent this Saturday at one of the funner places to go on or off the planet. The Fallout Shelter Arcade pods were built to play BattleTech in a full immersion environment. Close the pod around yourself and you have flight sticks, HUDs, main screen, throttles, and dozens of other controls. Basically the closest thing you can get to a flight simulator cockpit. I’ve played the game off and on in its various versions for twenty or so years. It’s pretty awesome.

I went to the Fallout Shelter Arcade this weekend. I tried to go last month but there was a blizzard. I turned around and went home. This weekend, I got there and it was amazing. They are closing soon and moving to a new location where they will concentrate more on private parties than being publicly open. So this was my last chance to go to their current location. And as usual it was a blast. They’ve been here for over a decade now I think. And it is sad to see them move.

But I’ve had a lot of good times there, and made friends that I hope to see again soon in their new location.

If you have a chance, get there before they close and move on. If you don’t, you will be missing something truly amazing.

18 - Charles - The Republic of Texas - There were very few major battles on Texas soil during the Civil War. The Union blockaded their ports, and took over the port cities surrounding them when possible. Most of the largest battles that occurred were related to Texas defending or retaking those ports, or crossing their eastern border to delay Union armies marching towards Texas. The Union never actually conquered Texas, and it was a hotspot of blockade runners shipping Southern Cotton to buyers all over the world throughout the war. Texas was in fact still standing as a powerful State with an effective army when General Lee surrendered at Appomattox. Though most of them saw the writing on the wall as the other Southern armies began surrendering.

19 - Charles - The Republic of Texas - The Texas government called on their armies to stand fast and hold the line after General Lee surrendered. They maintained that the revolutionary cause was not yet lost, and their generals continued to exhort the men to train and protect the borders. They were still engaging major Union threats a month later, but the common soldier knew they were being fed a load of bull. And if anybody knew what bull looked like, it was a native Texan. The standard conscripted soldier saw no need to fight to the bitter end over a cause that was obviously lost and went home, often after “stocking up” on some last minute provisions from the nearest army depot. The vast Texas army literally just went home and a mere two thousand Union soldiers landed in Galveston a month later to take possession of a State that was offering no organized resistance. And the Texas governor who had ordered the soldiers to fight to the bitter end fled south of the border with the last of his sycophants. So the Civil War ended in Texas.

20 - Charles - The Republic of Texas - The Civil War left the Southern States in ruins. Forty percent of their livestock, farming equipment, and mechanized industries were wiped out. Their railroads had been torn up to destroy their ability to resupply their troops. And twenty five percent of all Southern free men were dead. Some estimates are higher or lower on each of these points, but the fact is that the Civil War shattered the Southern economy. And while Texas suffered very little actual damage, their mechanized industries had been far less developed than the older States. The loss of so many of their young men to the war, and the loss of so much livestock sent to feed the Confederacy’s army, left their economy in ruins, and what money they did have was effectively useless after their government surrendered. Northern men found riches of land and equipment for the taking when they arrived with their stereotypical carpetbags full of money to buy what they wanted and bring it back into operation. The New Age of Reconstruction had begun.

21 - Charles - The Republic of Texas - The assassination of President Abraham Lincoln changed everything for Reconstruction in the Southern States. He had run the 1864 election with a unity government made up of Republicans and Northern Democrats in an attempt to make the Civil War less of a Republican versus Democrat conflict. Democrat Vice President Andrew Johnson spoke of hanging Confederates while part of the unity government, but as President he sought a much softer Reconstruction. Few Confederate leaders were imprisoned, none were tried for treason, and only one was executed for war crimes. He did not stop the Southern Black Codes that turned the freedmen into second class citizens, unable to own property, do business, or even walk around in public spaces like a normal man, and he blocked many laws the Republican Congress tried to pass. That was poorly received by Republicans, who fought the election of 1866 with a plan to change everything.

22 - Charles - The Republic of Texas - The Republicans ran the table in the post-victory election of 1866. They achieved two thirds majorities in both Houses, enough to override any vetoes from President Johnson, and quickly suspended the civilian governments in the Southern States. They enacted a five year suspension of voting rights for former Confederate leaders and officers, and passed the Fourteenth Amendment that clearly stated the freedmen were full citizens of the United States, and could not be deprived of their life, liberty, or property without due process and equal protection. It reapportioned Representatives by counting all the free men over twenty five years of age in each State. It banned former Confederates from government service, and wrote off the debts incurred by those in rebellion or insurrection. And in a move that was particularly stunning, it gave Congress itself the power to enforce the Amendment. A power they quickly sought to use as they pressed what historians called the Radical Reconstruction Plan into the Southern States.

23 - Charles - The Republic of Texas - The administration Democrat President Johnson inherited after Republican President Lincoln’s assassination was aggressive in the form of Reconstruction it wanted to pursue. The Republicans wanted to erase Slavery and replace it with a true Free Society forever divorced from the one that came before. Johnson wished a far more modest Reconstruction that would allow the Southern States to map their own futures, and further wished to reshape his administration in his image. So the Republicans passed a law that forbade him from removing anyone the President and the Senate had placed in position without first asking the Senate to agree. When President Johnson dismissed Secretary of War Stanton in a direct challenge to the law they had passed over his veto, the House of Representatives voted to Impeach him. The Senate failed to convict him by one vote, and he remained in office until the end of the term he and Lincoln had been elected to, but his political star had been brought low. Even the Democrats did not want him, and the election of 1868 proceeded on without him.

24 - Medron - Iwo Jima - We invaded Iwo Jima seventy-five years ago in our drive to advance to the Japanese Home Islanders during World War II. Over 500 ships and 110,000 men would assault the tiny island. We lost one ship, with two others damaged, and nearly 20,000 of our men were injured. Nearly 7,000 died, including half of those in this immortal picture taken atop Mount Suribachi. It took over a month to kill 18,000 dug in Japanese defenders, and another three months to dig out most of the 3,000 that remained in hiding. The last two Japanese soldiers finally surrendered four years later.

Seventy-five years ago, the photographer nearly missed it because he was busy piling rocks when he realized the flag was going up. He grabbed his camera and snapped the photo without even taking time to look through the viewfinder. He just clicked it, hoped it came out, and his picture became one of the most famous photographs ever taken.

25 - Charles - The Republic of Texas - The election of 1868 was effectively a war without name. Former Confederate leaders and officers could not vote, while the freed slaves were all but guaranteed to vote in overwhelming numbers for Union General Grant who had helped free them. No Confederates could run for office, so the political tables were balanced between the Republicans advocating permanent suffrage for all freedmen and the Northern Democrats campaigning for the right of States to make their own decisions on who could be allowed to vote. And three States, including Texas, had not yet been welcomed back into the Union, so they could not vote at all. Which in some ways was very good for Texas. They avoided the worst of the political violence that washed through the other Southern States as the Ku Klux Klan hunted down or assassinated thousands of Republicans, burned down churches, schools, and homes, and did everything they could to keep people from picking up a Republican ballot on election day. Grant won despite the campaign of voter suppression and pushed Radical Reconstruction into the Southern States straight to the hilt.

26 - Charles - The Republic of Texas - The Republicans were worried as 1870 approached. The Three Fifths Compromise of the Constitution limited how many Representatives the Southern States received from their slave population, but they had still managed to greatly influence national politics in the half century since the Democrats had split from the First Republican Party. The Third Republican Party feared that if the Democrats continued to seek ways to disenfranchise their freedmen, the 1870 census would simply give them what they had always wanted. Full representation accounting for all the people in their States, but with the votes controlled entirely by the former slave owners. The combined population of the Southern States would grant them domination of national politics should that happen. And Texas, Mississippi, and Virginia were about to reenter the Union and add their representatives to the mix. The Republicans had to stave off the disenfranchisement of the former slaves if they were going to have any chance of placing a cork in the Democrats’ political machine. So they passed the 15th Amendment that banned taking away anybody’s vote based on race, color, or their former status as slaves.

27 - Charles - The Republic of Texas - The 1870s were effectively a time of undeclared war in much of America. The Ku Klux Klan hunted and killed Republicans and freedmen in the Southern States, and the Federal government declared them a terrorist organization. Federal troops occupied the Southern States and hunted the Ku Klux Klan into extinction. But it seemed like every victory included a defeat. Confederate officers and leaders were able to vote again starting in 1872, and a flagging Southern economy resulted in a national depression in 1873. Northerners lost trust in Reconstruction due to tales of corruption coming out of the Southern States, and the Democrats were quick to capitalize on that. They renounced the get rich quick schemes of Northern Carpetbaggers and demanded that local rights be protected. It was an easy campaign to make, and increasingly unhappy Northerners wanted less and less to do with the ungrateful Southerners.

28 - Charles - The Republic of Texas - Nearly 90% of the Texas Republican Party membership was freedmen in the 1870s. It was literally called the Negro Party because of this, though there was a small mixture of Northern Carpetbaggers and Southern Scalawags, what proper Southern gentlemen called those who had been more loyal to the Union than their own Confederacy. Nearly all respectable Southern white gentlemen belonged to the Democrat Party, who of course were only looking to protect the rights and privileges of the State they had helped mold. Unlike the Northerners and their lazy allies who just wanted to buy up the land of loyal locals and turn them out like beggars. The problem for the Republicans was that there were more whites living in Texas than blacks, and as voting rates approached 90% of all eligible voters, despite the violent voter suppression efforts going on, the Democrats simply had more votes to fall back on. They used their majority to enact segregated schools, poll taxes, laws to disallow the carrying of weapons, and other measures designed to make it harder for freedmen to live and vote as other people. And yet the freedmen continued to vote.

29 - Charles - The Republic of Texas - The 1876 election is generally considered to be one of the most controversial elections in American history. Democrat organizations like the Red Shirts and White League operated openly, unlike the defunct KKK, organizing armed marches numbering in the thousands to drive out or murder Republican officials, or keep Republicans from voting at all on election day. They printed ballots with Republican symbols but Democrat names to entice illiterate voters into casting the wrong ballot, and vote stuffing was so impressive that it resulted in 101% of the possible vote tallied in one State. Three States sent two official election results to the Electoral College. One endorsed by the existing State government, and one endorsed by the Democrats. And the Oregon governor disqualified one elector because he was a Postmaster, and therefore a government employee, and replaced him with a Democrat elector. An Electoral Commission awarded all disputed votes to Republican President Hayes, and a hasty series of backdoor meetings between Republicans and Democrats followed. The Republicans finally agreed to pull out the last of the federal troops enforcing the now-unpopular Reconstruction efforts, and the Democrats agreed not to protest the election. And so Reconstruction came to an end in the United States of America.

dairy_entries_2020-02.txt · Last modified: 2021/02/05 02:21 by medron