Hello, my name is…
1 - Medron - Jack of Harts Commentary - You may ask how the American Federal Government is able to maintain one of the largest fleets in our sector of space when it lacks an Income Tax to support it. The simplest answer is that the Federal Government cannot directly tax American Citizens. It CAN however tax the American States, and require that they hand over a part of their tax earnings to the Federal Government. But the States often display reluctance to hand over vast amounts of money to the Feds, so they have to keep such taxes to a modest level that the States are willing to pay. It is much easier for the Feds to require territories and colonies who do not have Federal Representatives to lobby in their favor to pay their taxes. Those taxes can be…much more lucrative to the Federal treasury than relying on the largesse of the State Governments. You may infer from this that the Federal Government of the United States of America is not universally loved and adored by all American territories and colonies throughout the galaxy. You would be accurate in that assessment. But when an American battle squadron those taxes help build stops by for a friendly visit, they are most certainly welcomed with a smile.
2 - Medron - Jack of Harts Commentary - The United States of America in Jack’s time officially includes the States, territories, and colonies throughout the Solar System, as well as the territories and colonies beyond the Oort Cloud. Yes, there are numerous American States on Mercury, Venus, Mars, Luna, and several other moons and planetoids throughout the Solar System. They have full representation in the Federal Government. There are no States outside the Solar System, though there are many systems who fly the American flag, govern themselves, and pay the lesser tax rates of States rather than territories or colonies. The cutoff for applying for such status is usually when they gain agricultural and industrial self-sufficiency. Once they can feed and defend themselves without homeworld support, America has graciously decided to grant them autonomy. Yes, there are charges of taxation without representation. Very few of them have resulted in open rebellion because America generally sees the wisdom of letting them have their sovereignty rather than trying to hold onto them against their will. You could say we learned that lesson with George Washington and have tried to remember it.
3 - Medron - Jack of Harts Commentary - Official United States of America policy is that all colonies created by American interests are American colonies and therefore subject to colonial tax rates. There have been some disagreements over that policy. There have even been some that elevated to the level of stiff words and bullets. New New York is an interesting case. They were colonized by Old New York City and claimed they should pay only the State tax rates. The Federal Government disagreed and levied colonial taxes. What resulted was a fifteen-year legal battle between the United States of America and Old New York City, which ended when the Federal Government agreed to accept State tax rates from the growing colony world. And though the tax rates are lower, the absolute wealth of that star system has resulted in impressive amounts of money for the Federal Government. Several American battle squadrons have the “Paid For By New New York” stamp on their keel plates.
4 - Medron - Fourth of July - Today we celebrate the day that a group of well-armed men came together and did something crazy.
They came from every major religion in America, from Catholics to Unitarians to Congregationalists and more. They were men of politics and business. They were old men and young men. Some were great orators. Others preferred silence. Some would be ruined by what they did. Others rose to prominence because of it. One of them would become the first President of the nation born out of this action, and dared the British to come get him by signing his name as large as possible.
They did not wish to be taxed without being represented. They did not wish to be forced to buy things they did not wish to buy. They did not wish the government to take their firearms away from them. They pledged their lives, their fortunes, and their sacred honor to break the American colonies away from the King of England, the most powerful empire of the day.
Today we celebrate that they did not fail. That America lives because of them.
So go ahead and celebrate the birth of our nation by blowing a piece of it up. Trust me. Our founders would totally understand how that feels.
5 - Medron - Jack of Harts Commentaries - The Second Great Depression devastated America’s economic power. Most of the Western Powers took it on the chin at that time. The Chinese sugarcoated their conquests as securing the debts that America and other nations owed them. The Russians were far less concerned with saving face. They smiled as they reinstated their control over Eastern Europe and the various Stans on the southern border. It was their right to defend the Rodina, you know. The West was too busy trying to survive to do anything about the nations either one was gobbling up. By the time the surviving American States put the Federal government back in order and started looking outside again, there was no way they were going to roll any of the new borders back. America became home to a new wave of political refugees looking for freedom in a much darker world.
6 - Medron - Jack of Harts Commentaries - The Second Great Depression devastated America’s political powers. They had claimed for generations that there would always be more money to pay everything they promised to pay. Both the old Democrat and Republican parties were on an express train to bankruptcy as they robbed Peter to pay Paul. Or whoever happened to be the oppressed racial, economic, or religious minority of the day. Partisan politics divided America far more than anything could fully bring back together. And when the economic system came crashing down, the prepared bunkered up and started shooting looters like cordwood. The unprepared died when the looters came calling, and the remains of the old networks broadcast the fires for everybody to see. Some people called it a Second Civil War, others a Second Rebellion. The political extremists on both sides failed to realize how divorced they had become from the rest of America, and when it came time to fish or cut bait, the great majority of Americans cut both major parties up into kindling. Yes. I’m mixing metaphors here. It was a confusing and complex time, you know. ;)
7 - Medron - Jack of Harts Commentaries - The United States of America that stood back up to fight the Islamic Jihad and the Cybernetic Wars was greatly different from the one that fell into the Second Great Depression. The State governments were firmly in control of national policy, and they had started a new wave of expansion. The Mexican Drug Lords and the Islamic States had bought control of most of Mexico and tried to expand that control into America during the chaos. The Republic of Texas and other States responded by rolling over the old border and striking them where they lived. The Mexican military didn’t fight them very hard. Or at all. Oh the parts of it bought by the Drug Lords or the Islamic States fought to the death. The rest…didn’t. It was a strange alliance of invader and defender where each recognized that the Drug Lords and Islamic States were the real threat. And when it was done, the American States held defacto control of Mexico with a military that liked them better than their own political leaders. Then the American States helped them rebuild. That is the very brief background on how the Mexican States joined the United States of America.
8 - Medron - Jack of Harts Commentaries - The United States of America sent military units all over the world to fight the Islamic States and the Rogue AIs that had cropped up during the Second Great Depression. They even managed to get the fleet carriers and escorts anchored at San Diego back out to sea to face off against the Chinese forces looking to invade Australia. That took everybody working together to do, and the resulting navy task force was a truly American force. Ground troops were another matter. Most military bases in America fell to control of the State they lived in when the Federal government collapsed, and the States were not overly enthusiastic about giving them back to the Feds. So the various reserve and guard troops and fighter squadrons that traveled around the world to fight the good fight flew Texas, California, or Dixie flags above their American flags. That was a practice that stuck all the way to Jack’s time. It was utterly normal. A reminder that the States were in charge, even if that control had slipped a fair degree by his time.
9 - Medron - Jack of Harts Commentaries - The United States of America as it existed in Jack’s childhood had a relatively weak Federal government compared to the various State governments that selected its Senators. But the Western Alliance had colonized nearly two dozen star systems before Contact, and America tried to place at least small colonies in each of them. Add in the many, many more colonies started once cheaper and more efficient gravitic hyperspace engines came out, and the federal government had an impressive amount of taxes coming in. Far more than they needed for their regular operations. And the States denied them the option of funding Federal social programs in order to control the population. So the Feds built big beautiful buildings in the District of Columbia, big beautiful buildings in the colonies and territories to administer them, and a big beautiful black navy fleet to fly between every rock that carried an American flag anywhere on it. And that is why the American Federal Navy was one of the largest navies in existence when The War began.
10 - Medron - Jack of Harts Commentaries - The United States Federal government ran four primary military services in Jack’s time. The United States Space Force operated orbital forts, and aerospace fighters with a mission of maintaining space superiority over America and her colonies. They also performed customs enforcement in planetary orbitals. The Navy sailed deep into black, projecting American power throughout the cosmos, and performed their own customs enforcement outside planetary environments. The Army defended the District of Columbia and the far flung colonies with everything from individual soldiers to ground support air and spacecraft. They also sometimes engaged in offensive warfare. The United States Marines were called on to perform everything from ground combat to space superiority missions, and therefore used both Army and Space Force weapons and craft, as well as their own custom systems. They most often deployed from Space Force fortifications, Navy warships, or Army bases, and rarely operated in a truly independent nature.
11 - Medron - Jack of Harts Commentaries - The United States of America’s Federal Navy in Jack’s childhood focused primarily on large warships with only enough smaller escorts to protect them. It was almost unheard of for an America destroyer squadron to anywhere alone. They escorted the carriers, cruisers, or battleships that flew America’s flag throughout the cosmos. And those flagships were designed and built larger and more powerful than any other nations’ warships. It was a matter of pride that America’s fleet must be the most advanced fleet in space, capable of doing what no other fleet could do. Facing the aliens in battle with even numbers and winning. They never achieved that goal, though they got closer than any other fleet. And when the Shang attacked, they learned that when deployed in squadron strength, even American destroyers could be a real threat to them. They did not enjoy learning that lesson.
12 - Medron - Jack of Harts Commentaries - The United States Space Force had the mission of defending America’s homeland and colonies from spacebased attacks when Jack was young. They operated powerful orbital and ground forts designed to support the smaller craft that are their primary offensive and defensive arm. They flew many fighters and bombers over the years, but the F-7 Hellcat was their baby from day one. It had aerodynamic maneuverability and space flight capabilities, and the paired lasers and missile pods quickly became a symbol of American ingenuity over all the worlds. The Hellcat was so overwhelmingly successful that every other branch of the military began using them in time. Which was when many began to see the Space Force as a secondary arm, only there to help the Navy defend our worlds. The Space Force couldn’t let that stand, so they created the Avenger and Marauder programs to build the first hypercapable American fighters and bombers. The B-14 Marauder deployed a decade before The War started, and showed once more that the Space Force didn’t need no stinking Navy to reach out and crush America’s enemies.
13 - Medron - Jack of Harts Commentaries - The United States Army of Jack’s younger days was primarily responsible for protecting America’s District of Columbia and the various colonies and territories scattered throughout the cosmos. It was a fundamentally defensive organization in practice, while it celebrated great offensives of the past and trained for them from time to time. Often compared to the old Coast Guard by the other services, the Army was simply not the most prestigious of military services. Though they continually designed and purchased new small arms, tanks, mechs, or aircraft every year, in a neverending quest to be at the tip of the technological spear whenever the time came for them to really cut loose. I will note for the record that while most Army aircraft could enter space, and many were actually capable of interplanetary flight, the Army classified them as aircraft since they were designed primarily to work in planetary environments. Also, if they were spacecraft, they would be the province of the Space Force, and the Army couldn’t have that. So the Army never owned or operated spacecraft. Even when they were operating in space.
14 - Medron - Jack of Harts Commentaries - The United States Marine Corps of Jack’s childhood was actually America’s primary planetary combat arm. They used both Army and Space Force designs to fight on the ground and to secure the planetary orbitals, and they built their own Marine designs when they needed something to fill a niche those didn’t. They worked out of Army or Space Force bases, and deployed with every Naval ship in the cosmos, which allowed them to continue the old tradition that “every Marine is a rifleman.” Or a mech pilot. Or a tank driver. Maybe a fighter pilot. In the end, if you were a kid who wanted to play with guns and go to the stars, you wanted to be a Space Marine. When things were going wrong and the Americans needed to send someone to personally sort the bad guys out, it was usually the Marines who rode in to stack the bodies. Or they caught the smugglers trying to avoid local laws. Maybe they just boarded your broken down spacecraft and brought you back to the Navy starship that had come all this way to rescue you. Or they delivered disaster relief supplies. The Marines did a little bit of everything, and so they could be seen everywhere that America went.
15 - Medron - Jack of Harts Commentaries - An interesting point about the Marine Corps of Jack’s time, is that they were often the first to test designs that the Army wanted to build. They deployed and optimized them for Marine uses, and their tweaks often found their way back to the Army version. Marine hands tested both the Pattons and Katos before the Army deployed those tanks and mechs in large numbers. And the Marines absolutely fell in love with the Army’s Warthog. A massive gun strapped onto a mech that could transform into an aircraft capable of deploying and operating in space? It was a Marine’s wet dream, and they totally designed their own Cerberus to fill a similar role. The Marines did not care where an effective weapon came from. If they could use it, they wanted it. Even if laws said they couldn’t buy them from the source. The Marines were very good at circumventing laws like that, to the surprise of not a single person who knew the misguided individuals in question.
16 - Medron - Jack of Harts Commentaries - The United States Space Force commissioned the Marauder and Avenger projects to give them hyperspace combat capabilities, and they flew both designs during The War. But it was the Marines who first tested each design in actual combat. The Marauder was a huge craft, approaching the scale of actual frigates due to the massive hyperdrive, and it bristled with built-in weapons and hard points for additional equipment. The Marines loved it. They first tested it nearly a decade before The War began, and quickly adopted it into permanent deployment. Its primary weakness was maneuverability, due once again to the size of the hyperdrive, and the reactors required to power it and the various weapons. Which is where the Avenger came in. Both the Space Force and the Marines wanted a smaller hypercapable fighter, and it took nearly another decade of miniaturization to make that possible. The Avenger was still massive for a fighter, but was much smaller and sleeker than the Marauders. The Marines took them for testing as well, and it was Jack’s squadron who fought the Shang with them after The War started. All because the Marines also always looked for new weapons to throw at their enemies. Sometimes literally.
17 - Medron - Jack of Harts Commentaries - I will note that the United States Army got a major chance to shine during The War. They brought the largest tanks, mechs, and aircraft to the various fields of battle, from reserves stockpiled for generations. They constituted the core of trained soldiers that defended Western Alliance worlds across colonized space, and they fought on more Chinese and Russian outposts and colonies than most people even knew existed. It was the Army that conducted the ground invasion and occupation of the Hyades Cluster after Alliance warships cleared the orbitals. Space Marines like the Cowboys may have gotten good press and media deals, but it was the average GI Joe who brought the heavy end of the hammer down on our enemies. Or maybe they were a Jose, a Jay, or a Jacy depending on the culture they came from. They volunteered to serve from every American State and colony, and they fought for two decades straight under alien suns to secure America’s continued survival.
18 - Medron - Jack of Harts Commentaries - The United States Space Force shone bright on their own when The War came from Earth. Their forts held station over all of our colonies and their fighters and bombers patrolled the orbitals for any enemy. Anyone who wanted to attack our colonies had to break through the Space Force first, and few enjoyed that experience. But the Space Force was not limited to defensive operations. They went on the offensive as well. When the Navy was running short on warships to fill out their naval squadrons, they used Marauders to reinforce them. Most of those Marauders actually belonged to the Space Force. The Navy doesn’t like to talk much about that, you understand, but the fact is that they owe partial credit for most of their victories in the Hyades Cluster to the courageous and daring Space Force crews that brought their bombers around again and again to face enemy warships that outmassed them by entire orders of magnitude.
19 - Medron - Jack of Harts Commentaries - I’ve spoken mostly about the American Federal armed forces so far. But the fact is that for all the funding that went into them, they were not the bulk of America’s armed might when The War began. They were powerful. Make no mistake about that. But most of the State governments maintained their own militaries to defend their borders. The old State Guards, National Reserves, or National Guard units from before the Second Great Depression stayed with the States they were part of when the Federal government collapsed. And they continued to serve those States in most cases into Jack’s time. They were the bedrock that the States built their militaries upon over months and years as the Islamic Jihad and the Cybernetic Wars ravaged what they couldn’t protect. The State militaries helped rebuild America and the Western Alliance in the years to follow. And then they took to space in the decades and centuries beyond that. They helped defend new State colonies, and spread their influence throughout the cosmos every bit as much as the Federal forces did.
20 - Medron - Jack of Harts Commentaries - Most State Navies in Jack’s youth had at least token frigate or destroyer squadrons, often in the form of obsolete designs retired from the US Navy. Richer States sent at least a cruiser squadron or three into the black and they could toss some light carriers around when they felt like it as well. The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania is famous for having enough destroyer and cruiser squadrons that they could hand out flag ranks to any well-connected officer capable of buying one. Battlefield qualifications need not apply there. And the entire New England Federation owned multiple battleship and fleet carrier squadrons. They were not alone. Other State alliances, like the Republics of California and Texas, or the Confederation of Dixie, had battleship or fleet carrier squadrons of their own that could stand toe to toe with anything the Federal Navy could deploy. The Federal government asked the States to send as many ships as they could spare to serve in the Federal Navy after the Shang attacked. The States agreed with remarkably few complaints. The Shang had killed millions of their fellows, after all. They needed to learn the error of their ways.
21 - Medron - Jack of Harts Commentaries - Nearly all of the United States of Jack’s time had Space Forces of their own, though some combined their Space Force and Navy into a single branch. Aerospace fighters, and the various ground and orbital forts the States maintained were far cheaper and numerous than warships. They also threw out more firepower on a ton for ton basis. Fort Wichita, seen in one of the earlier actions of Jack’s career, actually belonged to Kansas, and maintained a permanent defensive orbit in the skies over that State. She also maintained a plot of ground in her central promenade made entirely of Kansas dirt and native buffalo grass, to meet the court definition of being built on State ground. The entire fort was an extension of Kansas herself, a sovereign part of the State in Earth orbit. That was the case for all State installations in space. The easiest way to defend them from territorial or colonial taxes was to plant a piece of the State inside them and claim them as official State property. The Feds did not approve of this practice, since it cost them valuable tax dollars, but they secured an agreement with the States to link these stations into the entire American defense grid during emergencies. This link became a permanent state of affairs after The War began, to the disgruntlement of the States that did not wish to lose their sovereignty. It was a delicate political balance between the necessities of total War, and the political realities on the ground. Literally.
22 - Medron - Jack of Harts Commentaries - Every State maintained some form of Army in Jack’s day. Mostly the descendents of the old National Guard, Reserves, or State Guards from before the Second Great Depression, they defended each State from outside threats. Officially. Some were little more than vanity platoons, good for parades and maybe occupying a local bar when times got rough. Others were true combat field commands that could face off against any Federal unit ever assembled. Some even took up the duties of the State Space Forces in the same way that the older American Army of World War II included the Army Air Force. That could make for some interesting communications difficulties when working with the Feds or other States. Now there were far, far more of the State Armies than the Federal government could field. They become the bulk of the American Army when the Feds requested reinforcements to take The War to the Shang and their Chinese allies. Individual State battalions or brigades often served in amalgamated units under the command of a Federal division commander, though some States fielded entire corps or field armies under the Federal banner. Under their own State flag of course. The Feds needed to be kept in their place, don’t you know.
23 - Medron - Jack of Harts Commentaries - Like the Federal armed services, State Marine Corps tended to be the busiest of the various State armed forces in Jack’s childhood. While in a state of peace or brushfire wars at worst, it was the smaller units that saw the most action, and the Marines were trained to go anywhere and do anything fast. They weren’t always the best force to send into action, but they were often the closest force available and capable of deploying to a threat. Like some State Armies, they fielded everything from individual grunts, to tanks, mechs, and even aerospace fighters and bombers. Space-capable descendents of the old Osprey were another favorite of the Marines, allowing them to deploy individual Marine units to any destination on Earth and beyond. They could rendezvous with ships in orbit, or drop Marines directly into a combat situation while filling the battlefield with explosive projectiles, laser pulses, or missile fire to suppress enemy defenses. The State Marine Corps were the most experienced military commands when The War began, and they took part in every major American Army, Space Force, or Navy deployment. They didn’t bring the most amount of firepower, the greatest expertise, or even the most bodies, to every single situation or battle, but State Marines were present and accounted for in every single major battle of the entire War.
24 - Medron - Jack of Harts Commentaries - Those of you who know me, know that I keep track of politics and am not shy about saying what I think. But I write stories that I want everybody to enjoy reading, so I don’t use political party names related to those of our current day. That is on purpose. The old political parties effectively died during the Second Great Depression, and those of Jack’s childhood are all new or radically transformed from those we know. I will note that the United States of America had over a dozen major political parties, and at least that many minor parties. Most of them came from individual States or State coalitions, though many were loosely affiliated into national power blocs. There were conservatives, liberals, and moderates, as well as socialists and capitalist parties. There were environmentalist parties and low tax parties. I haven’t named most of them, and I probably never will. And besides, most of even those political parties disappeared or radically changed once more on the day the Shang bombarded Washington DC and brought Yosemite Station down over most of the western United States. That changed politics in Jack’s day just a little bit.
25 - Medron - Jack of Harts Commentaries - When the American States came together to reform the Federal Government during the Second Great Depression, they had a few things to say about their thoughts on the role of said government. Very few of them included words like “more centralized power.” They also had a few things to say about the various big city types that had come to trouble all over America. In the same way that they did not want the Federal Government controlling the States, the State representatives did not want the big cities ruling the counties. So one of the first things they did was change the New States Clause of the Constitution to allow for breakaway States to join the Union without the approval of their State government. Or to eject a region they did not wish to share their State with anymore. You may gather that caused a rather massive change in how Statehood operated in the reformed United States of America.
26 - Medron - Jack of Harts Commentaries - Many of the States had issues with their biggest cities passing onerous laws and forcing the rest of their States to live by them. What could they do? Leave? The New States Clause of the American Constitution made it illegal to do that unless the State agreed. So the outer counties were captives to capital cities that had no interesting in letting them leave, and could force them to follow big city laws. Or so they thought. What the people of Jack’s time call Old California is still famous for having been home to a Sanctuary Movement where individual cities or counties simply refused to follow particular Federal or State laws. The first were created due to political disagreements on how to deal with illegal aliens or civilian ownership of firearms, but many other Sanctuaries sprouted up over the decades until you could find Sanctuary from just about any law or regulation you didn’t like. That made policing in America rather complicated in the decades leading up to the Second Great Depression.
27 - Medron - Jack of Harts Commentaries - Old California was particularly rife with Sanctuaries before the Second Great Depression hit, and they had spread throughout every State in the decades since their inception. They were places people could go to in order to find relief from a law they didn’t like, usually due to political, economic, or religious issues. They actually had much in common with the Mormon, Amish, and Indian communities that we have right now, a place where life was different than elsewhere. Sometimes better. Sometimes worse. It depended on the Sanctuary in question. They represented a major dividing line or crack in American politics and culture, and they formalized the split between many of the cultures that had once seen America as a single melting pot. The Second Great Depression saw the long simmering mutual distrust enflamed by decades of political rhetoric finally boil over. The distinctly American red and blue line left them unwilling to live with each other, and many States simply split up along county, city, or individual farm lines. The Sanctuaries proved central to many of these splits. Some of them died. Others thrived, and it was their representatives that went to the States and the Feds in time to reform the government under more…rational rules.
28 - Medron - Jack of Harts Commentaries - When the supermarkets ran out of food during the Second Great Depression, it started a migration as the city folk marched out and tried to get their food from the local yokels. Maybe it was more a stumble in many cases. A shuffling. Kinda like zombies. Well, they learned that game hunters are perfectly okay with hunting long pig if said pigs are trying to take their land and food. I’m not going to say it was one sided. Many parts of America survived the depression with few or no problems at all. Others collapsed under the weight of their problems. Some groups of farmers, hunters, and retired veterans shot looters until the cows came home and had awesome barbeques. Some got snowed under by the weight of desperate cities looking for any way to feed their people. Some States came out of the depression golden and having fun. Others completely shattered. Though I will note that in even the worst of the States, some Sanctuaries of normality survived. Many never lost broadband internet or full network television and got to see the chaos on all their screens as they shook their heads and happily drove into work each day without a care in the world.
29 - Medron - Jack of Harts Commentaries - The Second Great Depression and the reformed Federal government saw many States making official what circumstances on the ground had already made clear. It took very little time for Minnesota to eject the Twin Cities from the State entirely. Most Minnesotans outside the Metro area disliked that hive of scum and villainy, and were perfectly happy to see it go away. New York did the same with what is known as Old New York City in Jack’s time. They did not eject the rest of Long Island, but the Long Islanders chose to join Old New York City in forming the new Empire State. Chicago. San Francisco. Detroit. Numerous big cities surrounded by rural regions suddenly found themselves utterly ignored by the counties they used to order around. But make no mistake. They were still major population centers, with high concentrations of industrial and economic power. A nation cannot survive without rural areas. It also cannot survive without cities. There will always be friction between them. In most cases, the cities were almost immediately accepted as States of their own, with their own Senators that they didn’t have to share with the local yokels. There were protests and court cases that went on for years over the issue of State divorces like that, but most of them ended without too many firearms used against the other side.
30 - Medron - Jack of Harts Commentaries - One of the more interesting aspects of the various State divorces that occurred during the Second Great Depression concerned the matter of infrastructure. Many cities were vastly powerful concentrations of industry and knowledge, but most of them relied on the rural areas around them to survive. And not just for food. That is a common trope that is not entirely true. Many cities also require power stations to survive that are outside their borders. Nuclear power plants. Major hydroelectric dams. Coal plants. Power made the cities bright and shiny, and they relied on power transmission lines traveling sometimes hundreds of miles over farms and ranches. City folk drove from place to place on highways built in the middle of territory once owned by middle class Americans. Most cities required major installations outside their own borders to survive, and they did not take kindly to said installations seeking to leave them behind. Many cities took to the courts to stop the secessions. Others took more direct action. Those situations rarely ended with everybody happy or, far too often, alive. It would be decades before all the ramifications of those various actions and disagreements came to light.
31 - Medron - Jack of Harts Commentaries - Various Indian Tribes all over America became functionally independent during the Second Great Depression. They had long inhabited an odd grey area in the law where they were considered sovereign nations while being controlled by the Federal government. The loss of Federal cohesion resulted in the better run Indian Tribes stepping outside that grey area and taking effective control of their destiny. Most of these had successful casinos or other Indian-owned businesses that allowed them to hire tribal police forces and exert order in their sphere’s of influence. Those sphere’s often went outside their official borders, and resulted in some interesting political quandaries when the various States reformed the Federal government. Most of them were solved without bloodshed.